COVID-19: An Assessment of Creative Communication, Crisis Preparedness, and Resilience Building in Hospitality Business in Bali

Syafiq Basri Assegaff, Rudi Sukandar, Mike Hardy, Julia Ratnasari Dewi, Habib Mohammad Ali, Ni Putu Ayuniantari


Two years of COVID-19 pandemic have brought global consequences, especially to those operating in business. This paper examines how risk and crisis preparedness contributed to business survival and resilience in the hospitality sector in Bali, Indonesia, a market significantly dependent on international visitors. This qualitative research employing a phenomenological approach. Initial data were acquired from two months of  observation in Bali from March 2020 until the end of May 2020. In addition to observation, semi structured interviews were also conducted with informants from four different hotels, aiming to uncover if the hotels embraced some strategies from the proactive pre-crisis planning to strategic implementations during the crisis. We did not include the after-crisis stage as the pandemic is still ongoing. The researchers validated findings through triangulating interviews with Balinese authorities. We found that although the current crisis disrupted hotel business, it also provided opportunities for creative communication, security strategies, and new connections with public sector health management. Further, in the early stages of crisis management preparedness and focused communication were vital for the level of survivability of the hotels. The study concluded that during a crisis, a successful organization management team does not follow a linear and organized process to lead their business through the stressful and chaotic phases. Based on this study, we  learned that business managers who adapted to the situation with crisis preparation, combined with raised awareness of public health issues, and use of commercial strategies focused on local communities can successfully reduce threats.

Full Text:



Afifa, L. (2021, April 12). The tourism dilemma. Tempo. Retrieved from

Assegaff, S. B. (June 21, 2021). Bahaya Infodemi dan COVID-19. Kompas. Retrieved from

Asian Development Bank (2021, July 1). 5 key sectors can boost post-pandemic recovery in Southeast Asia. Retrieved from:

Austin, L., & Jin, Y. (2017). Social media and crisis communication. New York, NY: Routledge.

Azwar, A. S. (2021, March 6). Expatriates join Indonesians in calling out foreign anti-maskers, anti-vaxxers in Bali. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from

Bali welcomes back tourists with first international flight. (2022, February 17). The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from

CDC (2014). Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication 2014 Edition. Be First. Be Right. Be Credible. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Corona Statistic Indonesia. (2021). Corona statistics Indonesia: Bali. Retrieved from

Coombs, W. T. (2017). Crisis public relations management. In R. Tench & L. Yeomans (Eds.) Exploring public relations: Global strategic communication (4th ed.) (pp. 343-361). New York, NY: Pearson Education.

Coombs, W.T. (2014) Crisis management and communications. Retrieved from

Crandall, W. R., Parnell, J. A., & Spillan, J. E. (2014). Crisis management: Leading in the new strategy landscape (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Christakis, N. A. (2020, August 10). Responding to COVID-19 Nicholas Christakis on fighting COVID-19 by truly understanding the virus. The Economist. Retrieved from

Daymon, C., & Holloway, I. (2011). Qualitative research methods in public relations and marketing communications (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Eloksari, E. A. (July 2, 2021). Bali tightens entry rules for tourists, ditches GeNose tests. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from

Eysenbach, G. (2020). How to Fight an infodemic: The four pillars of infodemic management. J Med Internet Res, 22(6), e21820. Retrieved from DOI: 10.2196/21820

Ghoshal, M. (2019). Social media as an effective tool to promote business: An empirical study. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 19, 15-25.

Gössling, S., Scott, D., & Hall, C. M. (2020): Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of COVID-19, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 1-20. DOI:10.1080/09669582.2020.1758708

Gurtner, Y. (2016). Returning to paradise: Investigating issues of tourism crisis and disaster recovery on the island of Bali. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 28, 11-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhtm.2016.04.007

Indonesian COVID-19 Taskforce (2021, February 13). Peta sebaran COVID-19. Retrieved from

Lai, Y. (2021, July 14). Countries put Indonesia on travel ban list as COVID-19 crisis worsens. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from

Loasana, N, A. (2022, March 8). Bali becomes first destination in Indonesia to waive quarantine for vaccinated foreign travelers. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from

McIlhatton, D., Berry, J., Chapman, J., Christensen, P., Cuddihy, J., Monaghan, R. and Range, D. (2020). Protecting crowded places from terrorism: An analysis of the current considerations and barriers inhibiting the adoption of counterterrorism protective security measures. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 43(9), 753-774. DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2018.1507311

Prabawa, I. W. S. W., & Dewi, K. A. R. (2018). Crisis management conducted by Bali Tourism Board (BTB) during tithe Mount Agung volcano eruption. Journal of Business on Hospitality and Tourism, 4(2), 150-156.

Pearson, C., & Mitroff, I. (1993). From crisis prone to crisis prepared: A framework for crisis management. Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 48-59

Pongsakornrungsilp, S., Pongsakornrungsilp, P., Kumar, V., & Maswongssa, B. (2021). The Art of Survival: Tourism Businesses in Thailand Recovering from COVID-19 through Brand Management. Sustainability, 13(12), 6690.

Rahman, D. F. (2020, January 18). Domestic travelers ‘not enough’ to revive Bali tourism. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from

Reynolds, B., & Seeger, M. (2014). Crisis emergency risk communication 2014 edition: Be first. Be right. Be credible. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Romagosa, F. (2020). The COVID-19 crisis: Opportunities for sustainable and proximity tourism. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 690-694. DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2020.1763447

Reynolds, B. J., and Seeger, M. W. (2005). Crisis and emergency risk communication as an integrative model. Journal of Health Communication, 10(1), 43-55. DOI: 10.1080/10810730590904571

Seeger, M. W. (2006). Best practices in crisis communication: An expert panel process. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 34(3), 232-244.

Voss, M., & Lorenz, D. F. (2016). Sociological foundations of crisis communication. In A. Schwarz, M. W. Seeger, & C. Auer (Eds.). Handbook of international crisis communication research (pp. 45-55). Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Stafford, M. R. (2020). Connecting and communicating with the customer: Advertising research for the hospitality industry. Journal of Advertising, 49(5), 505-507. DOI: 10.1080/00913367.2020.1813663

Trading Economics. (2021). Indonesia tourist arrivals. Retrieved from

The Economist (2021, February 13). Special report: The future of travel. Retrieved from

Veil, S., Reynolds, B., Sellnow, T.L., Seeger, M. W. (2008). CERC as a Theoretical Framework for Research and Practice. Health Promotion Practice, 9(4), 26S-34S. DOI: 10.1177/1524839908322113



Article Metrics:

Abstract Views - 503

PDF Downloads - 175


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Syafiq Basri Assegaff, Rudi Sukandar, Mike Hardy, Julia Ratnasari Dewi, Habib Mohammad Ali, Ni Putu Ayuniantari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed by: 
Google Scholar  Mendeley

Jurnal Komunikasi Ikatan Sarjana Komunikasi Indonesia (P-ISSN : 2548-8740, E-ISSN : 2503-0795)
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editorial Secretariat:
Jurnal Komunikasi: Ikatan Sarjana Komunikasi Indonesia (ISKI)
Gedung Dewan Pers 5th Floors, Jl. Kebon Sirih 32-34 Jakarta 10110 - Indonesia

Contact Person   : Prof. Dr. Rajab Ritonga, M.Si

Email                   :

Call/Whatsapp     : +62811133471
View My Stats