Adaptations of the News Media and Social Media Logics by Indonesian Political Parties’ Leaders and Presidential Candidates after 2004 Indonesian Presidential Election

Nyarwi Ahmad


Adaptations of political actors and organizations in Asian democratic countries to the media and social media logics have been increasingly visible. This article is specified to answer the following questions of  how Indonesian political parties’ leaders and presidential candidates after  2004 Indonesian presidential election adapted to the news and social media logics and what drove such adaptations.  Focusing on such questions, this article adopts theoretical models of mediatisation of politics formulated by Mazzoleni and Schulz, Strömbäck and Stromback and Van Aelts and extracts in-depth interview data derived from six Indonesian political parties’ leaders, two political consultants and six senior journalists associated with Indonesian media using the qualitative content and thematic analyses. The findings are as follows. These political parties’ leaders and presidential candidates favoured adapting to the news and social media logics when they got to deal with political issues and affairs, formulate political policies and secure their personal images in Indonesian political sphere. Such development was driven by the following factors, including establishing democratic political and media systems, increasing the roles of the media as sources of political information, escalating freedoms of Indonesian media and journalists to manage the media logic. Theoretical implications are chronicled and research recommendations are displayed.

Full Text:



Aalberg, T., & Strömbäck, J. (2011). Media-driven Men and Media-critical Women? An Empirical Study of Gender and MPs' Relationships with the Media in Norway and Sweden, International Political Science Review, 32 (2), 167-187

Ahmad, N., & Popa, I.L. (2014). “The social media and the transformation of political marketing and campaigning of the emerging democracy in Indonesia”, in Patrut, B., & Patrut, M (eds), Social Media in Politics: case studies on the political powers of social media (pp. 97-125). Springer

Ahmad, N. (2017). Political Marketing Management of Parliament Under the Presidential Government System: A Lesson Learned from the Indonesia House of Representative Post–New Order Soeharto. Journal of Political Marketing, 16(2), 71-94.

Ahmad, N. (2019). Indonesian News TV Channels and Polarized Political Issues. Asian Politics & Policy, 11(3), 505-508.

Ahmad, N. (2020). Celebrification of Politics: Understanding Migration of Celebrities into Politics Celebrification of Celebrity Politicians in the Emerging Democracy of Indonesia. East Asia, 37(1), 63-79.

Ahmad, N. (2022). What drives journalists’ perceptions of media powers as political image-makers in the emerging democracy of Indonesia? Global Media and Communication, 18(3), 323-343.

Asp, K. (2014). News Media Logic in a New Institutional Perspective, Journalism Studies, 15 (3), 256-270.

Blach-Ørsten, M., Eberholst, M.K., & Burkal, R. (2017). From hybrid media system to hybrid-media politicians: Danish politicians and their cross-media presence in the 2015 national election campaign, Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 14 (4), 334-347.

Bunten, M., & Uffen, A. (2009). Democratization in Post-Suharto Indonesia. London: Routledge.

Butler-Kisber, L. (2010). Qualitative Inquiry: Thematic, Narrative and Arts- Informed Perspectives. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Casero-Ripollés, A., Feenstra, R. A., & Tormey, S. (2016). Old and New Media Logics in an Electoral Campaign: The Case of Podemos and the Two-Way Street Mediatization of Politics, The International Journal of Press/Politics, 21(3), 378-397.

Couldry, N. (2008). Mediatisation or mediation? Alternative understandings of the emergent space of digital storytelling, New Media Society, 10 (3), 373-391.

Couldry, N., & Hepp, A. (2013). Conceptualizing Mediatisation: Context, Traditions, Arguments, Communication Theory, 23 (3), 191–202.

Cushion, S., Aalberg, T., & Thomas, R. (2014). Towards a rolling news logic in fixed time bulletins? A comparative analysis of journalistic interventions in the US, UK and Norway, European Journal of Communication, 29 (1), 100-109.

Chusion, S., Thomas, R., & Ellis, O. (2015). The Mediatisation of Second-Order Elections and Party Launches: UK Television News Reporting of the 2014 European Union Campaign, International Journal of Communication, 9, 1523–1543

Deacon, D., & Stanyer, J. (2014). Mediatisation: key concept of conceptual bandwagon, Media, Culture and Society, 36 (7), 1032–1044.

Deacon, D., & Stanyer, J. (2015). Mediatisation and’ or ‘Mediatisation of’? A response to Hepp et al., Media, Culture and Society, 37 (4), 655–657

Dhakidae, D. (1991). The State, The Rise of Capital and The Fall of Political Journalism: Political Economy of Indonesian News Industry. PhD Dissertation in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, the Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University.

Ekström, M., Fornäs, J., Janssson, A., & Jerslev, A. (2016). Three tasks for mediatisation research: contributions to an open agenda, Media, Culture and Society, 38 (7), 1090–1108,

Elmelund-Præstekær, C., Hopmann, D. N., & Nørgaard, A. S. (2011). Does Mediatisation Change MP-Media Interaction and MP Attitudes toward the Media? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Danish MPs, The International Journal of Press/Politics, 16 (3), 382-403.

Esser, F. (2013). Mediatisation as a Challenge: Media Logic Vs. Political Logic”, in Kriesi, H., Lavenex, S., Bochsler, D., Matthes, J., Esser, F., & Bühlmann, M. (eds), Democracy in the Age of Globalization and Mediatisation (pp. 155-176). Palgrave Macmillan.

Esser, F., & Strömbäck, J. (2014). Mediatisation of Politics: Towards a Theoretical Framearticle, in Esser, F., & Strömbäck, J. (Eds), Mediatisation of Politics: Understanding the Transformation of Western. Palgrave Macmillan.

Gazali, E. (2004). Communication of Politics and Politics of Communication in Indonesia: Study on Media Performance, Responsibility and Accountability. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Radboud University Nijmegen.

Gazali, E., Hidayat, D. N., & Manayang, V. (2009). Political Communication in Indonesia: Media Performance in Three Eras, in Willnat, L., & Aw, A.(eds), Political Communication in Asia. Routledge.

Hepp, A. (2011). Mediatisation, Media Technologies and the ‘Moulding Forces’ of the Media. Paper presented to the Philosophy of Communication Division for the annual International Communication Association conference in Boston, 26-30 May 2011.

Hepp, A. (2013). The communicative figurations of mediatized worlds: Mediatisation research in times of the 'mediation of everything, European Journal of Communication, 28 (6), 615-629.

Hepp, A., & Krotz, F. (2014). Mediatized Worlds: Understanding Everyday Mediatisation, in Hepp, A., and Krotz, F.(eds), Mediatized Worlds, Culture and Society in a Media Age (pp. 1-18). Palgrave Macmillan.

Hepp, A., Hjavard, S., & Lundby, K. (2015). Mediatisation: theorising the interplay between media, culture and society, Media, Culture and Society, 37(2), 314–322.

Hidayat, D. N., & Sendjaja, S. D. (2002). Media and the pandora’s box of reformation. Paper presented at the International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) Articleshop on “Globalizing media and local society in Indonesia,” Leiden, the Netherlands.

Hjarvard, S. (2008). The Mediatisation of Society: A Theory of the Media as Agents of Social and Cultural Change, Nordicom Review, 29 (2), 105-34.

Hjarvard, S. (2013). Introduction: From Mediation to Mediatisation, in Hjarvard, S. (eds), The Mediatization of Culture and Societies (pp. 1-7). Routledge.

Hjarvard, S. (2014). From Mediation to Mediatisation: The Institutionalization of New Media, in Hepp, A., & Krotz, F.(eds.), Mediatized Worlds, Culture and Society in a Media Age (pp. 123-142). Palgrave Macmillan,

Hopmann, D.N., & Strömbäck, J. (2010). The rise of the media punditocracy? Journalists and media pundits in Danish election news 1994—2007, Media Culture Society, 32 (6), 943-960.

Jensen. K. B. (2013). Definitive and Sensitizing Conceptualizations of Mediatisation, Communication Theory, 23 (3), 203–222

Kalsnes, B. (2016). The Power of Likes: Social Media Logic and Political Communication. Doctoral Thesis submitted for the degree of PhD Department of Media and Communication, Faculty of Humanities, University of Oslo.

Kalsnes, B., Larsson, A.O., & Enli, G.S. (2017). The Social Media Logic of Political Interaction: Exploring Citizens and Politicians Relationship on Facebook and Twitter, First Monday, 22 (2).

Kepplinger, H. M. (2002). Mediatisation of Politics: Theory and Data, Journal of Communication, 52(4), 972–86.

Krotz, F. (2007). The meta-process of `mediatisation' as a conceptual frame, Global Media and Communication, 3 (3), 256-260.

Krotz, F. (2009). Mediatisation: A Concept with Which to Grasp Media and Societal Changes, in Lundby, K.(eds.), Mediatisation: Concept, Changes, Consequences (pp. 21-40). Peter Lang Publishing Inc.

Krotz, F. (2014). Media, Mediatisation and Mediatized Worlds: A Discussion of Basic Concepts, in Hepp, A., & Krotz, F.(eds.), Mediatized Worlds, Culture and Society in a Media Age (pp. 72-90). Palgrave Macmillan,

Krotz, F. (2017). Explaining the Mediatisation Approach, Javnost - The Public, 24 (2), 103-118

Kunelius, R., & Reunanen, E. (2012). Media in Political Power: A Parsonian View on the Differentiated Mediatisation of Finnish Decision Makers, The International Journal of Press/Politics, 17(1), 56-75.

Landerer, N. (2013). Rethinking the Logics: A Conceptual Framework for the Mediatisation of Politics, Communication Theory, 23 (3), 239–258

Lim, M. (2011). @Crossroads: Democratization and Corporatization of Media in Indonesia. Retrieved from November 25, 2014.

Lim, M. (2013). Indonesia Report-Media Law and Policy in the Internet Age. Retrieved from November 25, 2014.

Livingstone, S. (2009a). On the mediation of everything: ICA presidential address 2008, Journal of communication, 59 (1), 1-18.

Livingstone, S. (2009b). Foreword: Coming to Terms with Mediatisation, in Lundby, K.(eds.), Mediatisation: Concept, Changes, Consequences (pp. ix-xi). New York: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.

Lundby, K. (2009). Introduction: ‘Mediatisation’ As Key”, in Lundby, K.(eds.), Mediatisation: Concept, Changes, Consequences (pp. 1-20). Peter Lang Publishing Inc.

Lunt, K., & Livingstone, S. (2016). Is ‘mediatisation’ the new paradigm for our field? A commentary on Deacon and Stanyer (2014, 2015) and Hepp, Hjarvard and Lundby (2015), Media, Culture and Society, 38 (3), 462–470

Mazzoleni, G., & Schulz, W. (1999). Mediatisation of Politics: A Challenge for Democracy? Political Communication, 16(3), 247–61

Mazzoleni, G. (2008). Media Logic, in Donsbach, W.(eds.), the International Encyclopedia of Communication (pp. 2930–2932). Malden, MA: Blackwell

Mazzoleni, G. (2017). Changes in Contemporary Communication Ecosystems Ask for a “New Look” at the Concept of Mediatisation, Javnost - The Public, 24 (2), 136-145

Meyen, M., Thieroff, M., & Stenger, S. (2014). Mass Media Logic and The Mediatisation of Politics, Journalism Studies, 15 (3), 271-288.

Nugroho, Y., & Syarief, S. (2012). Beyond Click Activism: New Media and Political Processes in Contemporary Indonesia. Friedrich-Ebert Stiftung.

Nugroho, Y., Siregar, M., & Laksmi, S. (2012). Mapping media policy in Indonesia. CIPG and Hivos.

Pallas, J., Fredriksson, M., & Wedlin, L. (2016). Translating Institutional Logics: When the Media Logic Meets Professions, Organizational Studies, 37 (11), 1661-1684.

Reunanen, S., Kunelius, R., & Noppari, E. (2010). Mediatisation in Context: Consensus Culture, Media and Decision Making in the 21st Century, The Case of Finland, Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research 35 (3), 287-307.

Schulz, W. (2004). Reconstructing Mediatisation as an Analytical Concept, European Journal of Communication, 19(1), 87-101

Strömbäck, J. (2008). Four Phases of Mediatisation: An Analysis of the Mediatisation of Politics, The International Journal of Press/Politics, 13 (3), 228-246

Strömbäck, J. (2011a). Mediatisation and Perceptions of the Media’s Political Influence, Journalism Studies, 12 (4), 423-439

Strömbäck, J. (2011b). ‘Mediatisation of Politics: towards a conceptual framearticle for comparative research, in Bucy, E.P., and Holbert, R.L. (eds), Sourcebook for Political Communication Research: methods, measures, and analytical techniques. Routledge.

Strömbäck, J., & Esser, F. (2009). Shaping Politics: Mediatisation and Media Interventionism, in Lundby, K.(eds.), Mediatisation: Concept, Changes, Consequences (pp. 205-224). Peter Lang Publishing Inc.

Strömbäck, J., & Esser, F. (2014a). Mediatisation of Politics: Towards a Theoretical Framearticle, in Esser, F., and Strömbäck, J.(eds.), Mediatisation of Politics. Understanding the Transformation of Western Democracies (pp. 3–28). Palgrave Macmillan.

Strömbäck, J., & Esser, F. (2014b). Introduction: Making sense of the mediatisation of politics, Journalism Studies, 15 (3), 243-255

Strömbäck, J., & Esser, F. (2014c). Introduction, Journalism Practice, 8 (3), 245-257

Strömbäck, J., & Dimitrova, D.V. (2011). Mediatisation and Media Interventionism: A Comparative Analysis of Sweden and the United States, The International Journal of Press/Politics, 16 (1), 30-49.

Strömbäck, J., & Van Aelst, P. (2013). Why political parties adapt to the media: Exploring the fourth dimension of mediatisation, International Communication Gazette, 75 (4), 341-358.

Takens, J., Van Atteveldt, W, Van Hoof, A., & Kleinnijenhuis, J. (2013). Media logic in election campaign coverage, European Journal of Communication, 28 (3), 277-293.

Van Dijck, J., & Poell, T. (2013). Understanding Social Media Logic, Media and Communication, 1(1), 2-14.

Voltmer, K., & Sorensen, L. (2016). Mediatised transitions: Democratisation in an age of media abundance. The Working Papers in the Media, Conflict and Democratisation (MeCoDEM).

Wojtkowski, L. (2017). The Present Tense of Mediatisation Studies, Mediatisation Studies, 1/2017.



Article Metrics:

Abstract Views - 74

PDF Downloads - 33


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Nyarwi Ahmad

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed by: 
Google Scholar  Mendeley

Jurnal Komunikasi Ikatan Sarjana Komunikasi Indonesia (P-ISSN : 2548-8740, E-ISSN : 2503-0795)
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editorial Secretariat:
Jurnal Komunikasi: Ikatan Sarjana Komunikasi Indonesia (ISKI)
Gedung Dewan Pers 5th Floors, Jl. Kebon Sirih 32-34 Jakarta 10110 - Indonesia

Contact Person   : Prof. Dr. Rajab Ritonga, M.Si

Email                   :

Call/Whatsapp     : +62811133471
View My Stats