Building Social Capital Online During the COVID-19 Transition in Indonesia

Tawakkal Baharuddin, Sjafri Sairin, Achmad Nurmandi, Zuly Qodir, Hasse Jubba

Abstract


The COVID-19 pandemic  not only causes health problems but also affects the level of social trust. Low social trust occurs in the public sphere and transforms in the digital space. This situation was then deemed necessary to rebuild social capital. This study aims to prove that there are still opportunities in times of crisis  where social capital can be re-formed, depending  on how social networks initiate voluntary activism on social media. This study used a quantitative approach. Data were collected from Twitter using Ncapture.  The data including information on COVID-19 cases were later analysed using the Nvivo 12 Plus software.  This study found that there is a possibility and opportunity  that  low social trust caused by  the COVID-19 pandemic can still be restored in times of crisis, at least by utilizing social media as a social networking center. Social networks on Twitter slowly shape cooperative behavior and social trust, and influence collectivities in rebuilding social capital.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Aassve, A., Alfani, G., Gandolfi, F., & Le Moglie, M. (2021). Epidemics and trust: The case of the Spanish Flu. Health Economics, 30(4), 840–857. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.4218

Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S. W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 17–40. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2002.5922314

Ahmed, S., Cho, J., Jaidka, K., Eichstaedt, J. C., & Ungar, L. H. (2020). The Internet and Participation Inequality: A Multilevel Examination of 108 Countries. International Journal of Communication, 14, 1542–1563.

Al-Dmour, H., Masa’deh, R., Salman, A., Abuhashesh, M., & Al-Dmour, R. (2020). Influence of social media platforms on public health protection against the COVID-19 pandemic via the mediating effects of public health awareness and behavioral changes: Integrated model. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(8), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.2196/19996

Baharuddin, T., Sairin, S., Jubba, H., Qodir, Z., Nurmandi, A., & Hidayati, M. (2021). Social Capital and Social Trust : The State ’ s Response in Facing the Spread of COVID-19 in Indonesia. Sociology and Technoscience, 11(2), 23–47. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.24197/st.2.2021.23-47

Balog-Way, D. H. P., & McComas, K. A. (2020). COVID-19: Reflections on trust, tradeoffs, and preparedness. Journal of Risk Research, 23(7–8), 838–848. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2020.1758192

Baulch, E., Flew, T., & Li, N. L. (2019). The Shifting Institutional Bases of Digital Asia Studies: Communication, Culture, and Governance in Asia. International Journal of Communication, 13, 4579–4585.

Borgonovi, F., & Andrieu, E. (2020). Bowling together by bowling alone: Social capital and COVID-19. Social Science & Medicine, 265(6), 113501. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113501

Bourdieu, P. (2018). THE FORMS OF CAPITAL. Routledge.

Calderón Gómez, D. (2020). The third digital divide and Bourdieu: Bidirectional conversion of economic, cultural, and social capital to (and from) digital capital among young people in Madrid. New Media & Society, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444820933252

Castro-Martinez, A., Méndez-Domínguez, P., Sosa Valcarcel, A., & Castillo de Mesa, J. (2021). Social connectivity, sentiment and participation on twitter during covid-19. In International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (Vol. 18, Issue 16). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168390

Chandrasekaran, R., Mehta, V., Valkunde, T., & Moustakas, E. (2020). Topics, Trends, and Sentiments of Tweets about the COVID-19 Pandemic: Temporal Infoveillance Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(10), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.2196/22624

Chaves-Montero, A., Relinque-Medina, F., Fernández-Borrero, M., & Vázquez-Aguado, O. (2021). Twitter, social services and covid-19: Analysis of interactions between political parties and citizens. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(4), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042187

Chen, Q., Min, C., Zhang, W., Wang, G., Ma, X., & Evans, R. (2020). Unpacking the black box: How to promote citizen engagement through government social media during the COVID-19 crisis. Computers in Human Behavior, 110, 106380. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106380

Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. The American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95–S120. Retrieved from https://www.crcresearch.org/files-crcresearch/File/coleman_88.pdf

Delhey, J., & Newton, K. (2003). Who trusts?: The origins of social trust in seven societies. European Societies, 5(2), 93–137. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461669032000072256

Dinesen, P. T., Schaeffer, M., & Oslashnderskov, K. M. (2020). Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust: A Narrative and Meta-Analytical Review. Annual Review of Political Science, 23, 441–465. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-polisci-052918-020708

Donovan, J., & Boyd, D. (2021). Stop the Presses? Moving From Strategic Silence to Strategic Amplification in a Networked Media Ecosystem. American Behavioral Scientist, 65(2), 333–350. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764219878229

Dressel, S., Johansson, M., Ericsson, G., & Sandström, C. (2020). Perceived adaptive capacity within a multilevel governance setting: The role of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital. Environmental Science and Policy, 104, 88–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2019.11.011

Drouin, M., McDaniel, B. T., Pater, J., & Toscos, T. (2020). How Parents and Their Children Used Social Media and Technology at the Beginning of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Associations with Anxiety. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 23(11), 727–736. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2020.0284

Evers, N. F. G., Greenfield, P. M., & Evers, G. W. (2021). COVID-19 shifts mortality salience, activities, and values in the United States: Big data analysis of online adaptation. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 3(1), 107–126. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbe2.251

Faour-klingbeil, D., Osaili, T. M., Al-nabulsi, A. A., Jemni, M., & Ewen, C. (2021). The public perception of food and non-food related risks of infection and trust in the risk communication during COVID-19 crisis: A study on selected countries from the Arab region. Food Control, 121, 107617. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107617

Fischer, E., & Reuber, A. R. (2011). Social interaction via new social media: (How) can interactions on Twitter affect effectual thinking and behavior? Journal of Business Venturing, 26(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2010.09.002

Fletcher, R., & Park, S. (2017). The Impact of Trust in the News Media on Online News Consumption and Participation. Digital Journalism, 5(10), 1281–1299. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1279979

Gazali, E. (2014). Learning by clicking: An experiment with social media democracy in Indonesia. International Communication Gazette, 76(4–5), 425–439. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048514524119

Geise, S., Heck, A., & Panke, D. (2020). The Effects of Digital Media Images on Political Participation Online: Results of an Eye-Tracking Experiment Integrating Individual Perceptions of “Photo News Factors.” Policy and Internet, 13(1), 54–85. https://doi.org/10.1002/poi3.235

Gereke, J., Schaub, M., & Baldassarri, D. (2018). Ethnic diversity, poverty and social trust in Germany: Evidence from a behavioral measure of trust. PLoS ONE, 13(7), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199834

Holmes, K., Balnaves, M., & Wang, Y. (2015). Red Bags and WeChat (Weixίn): online collectivism during massive Chinese cultural events. Global Media Journal: Australian Edition, 9(1), 15–26.

Huang, F., Ding, H., Liu, Z., Wu, P., Zhu, M., Li, A., & Zhu, T. (2020). How fear and collectivism influence public’s preventive intention towards COVID-19 infection: a study based on big data from the social media. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09674-6

Hui, C. H. (1988). Measurement of individualism-collectivism. Journal of research in personality, 22(1), 17-36.

Ince, J., Rojas, F., & Davis, C. A. (2017). The social media response to Black Lives Matter: how Twitter users interact with Black Lives Matter through hashtag use. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40(11), 1814–1830. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2017.1334931

Isnain, A. R., Marga, N. S., & Alita, D. (2021). Sentiment Analysis Of Government Policy On Corona Case Using Naive Bayes Algorithm. IJCCS (Indonesian Journal of Computing and Cybernetics Systems), 15(1), 55. https://doi.org/10.22146/ijccs.60718

Jennings, F. J., Suzuki, V. P., & Hubbard, A. (2021). Social Media and Democracy: Fostering Political Deliberation and Participation. Western Journal of Communication, 85(2), 147–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/10570314.2020.1728369

Kennedy, R., Sokhey, A. E., Abernathy, C., Esterling, K. M., Lazer, D. M. J., Lee, A., … Neblo, M. A. (2021). Demographics and (Equal?) Voice: Assessing Participation in Online Deliberative Sessions. Political Studies, 69(1), 66–88. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032321719890805

Khongsai, L., Anal, T. S. S. C., A.S, R., Kh, T. S., Shah, M. K., & Pandey, D. (2021). Combating the Spread of COVID-19 Through Community Participation. Global Social Welfare, 8(2), 127–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40609-020-00174-4

Kim, H., Kim, Y., & Lee, D. (2020). Understanding the Role of Social Media in Political Participation: Integrating Political Knowledge and Bridging Social Capital From the Social Cognitive Approach. International Journal of Communication, 14, 4803–4824.

Klein, E., & Robison, J. (2020). Like, Post, and Distrust? How Social Media Use Affects Trust in Government. Political Communication, 37(1), 46–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2019.1661891

Kuipers, N., Mujani, S., & Pepinsky, T. (2020). Encouraging Indonesians to Pray From Home During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Experimental Political Science, (2020), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1017/xps.2020.26

Kye, B., & Hwang, S. J. (2020). Social trust in the midst of pandemic crisis: Implications from COVID-19 of South Korea. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 68, 100523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2020.100523

Lim, M. (2017). Freedom to hate: social media, algorithmic enclaves, and the rise of tribal nationalism in Indonesia. Critical Asian Studies, 49(3), 411–427. https://doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2017.1341188

Limaye, R. J., Sauer, M., Ali, J., Bernstein, J., Wahl, B., Barnhill, A., & Labrique, A. (2020). Building trust while influencing online COVID-19 content in the social media world. The Lancet Digital Health, 2(6), e277–e278. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30084-4

Lőrincz, L., Koltai, J., Győr, A. F., & Takács, K. (2019). Collapse of an online social network: Burning social capital to create it? Social Networks, 57, 43–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2018.11.004

Lynch, M., Freelon, D., & Aday, S. (2017). Online clustering, fear, and uncertainty in Egypt’s transition. Democratization, 24(6), 1159–1177. https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2017.1289179

Mandarano, L., Meenar, M., & Steins, C. (2010). Building social capital in the digital age of civic engagement. Journal of Planning Literature, 25(2), 123–135. https://doi.org/10.1177/0885412210394102

Mazumder, S. (2020). How important is social trust during the COVID-19 crisis period? Evidence from the Fed announcements. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, 28, 100387. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbef.2020.100387

Mietzner, M. (2020). Populist Anti-Scientism, Religious Polarisation, and Institutionalised Corruption: How Indonesia’s Democratic Decline Shaped Its COVID-19 Response. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 39(2), 227–249. https://doi.org/10.1177/1868103420935561

Mirbabaie, M., Bunker, D., Stieglitz, S., Marx, J., & Ehnis, C. (2020). Social media in times of crisis: Learning from Hurricane Harvey for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic response. Journal of Information Technology, 35(3), 195–213. https://doi.org/10.1177/0268396220929258

Moshkovitz, K., & Hayat, T. (2021). The rich get richer: Extroverts’ social capital on twitter. Technology in Society, 65, 101551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2021.101551

Msugheter, A. E. (2020). Internet meme as a campaign tool to the fight against Covid-19 in Nigeria. Global Journal of Human-Social Science: A Arts & …, 20(6), 27–39.

Murthy, D. (2012). Towards a Sociological Understanding of Social Media: Theorizing Twitter. Sociology, 46(6), 1059–1073. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038511422553

Naeem, M. (2021). Do social media platforms develop consumer panic buying during the fear of the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 58, 102226. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2020.102226

Ng, K. H., & Kemp, R. (2020). Understanding and reducing the fear of COVID-19. Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B [revista en Internet] 2020 [acceso 3 de abril de 2021]; 21(9): 752-754. Journal of Zhejiang University, 21(9), 752–754. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301038/

Norbutas, L., & Corten, R. (2018). Network structure and economic prosperity in municipalities: A large-scale test of social capital theory using social media data. Social Networks, 52, 120–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2017.06.002

Nunkoo, R. (2017). Governance and sustainable tourism: What is the role of trust, power, and social capital? Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 6(4), 277–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2017.10.003

Obi-Ani, N. A., Anikwenze, C., & Isiani, M. C. (2020). Social media and the Covid-19 pandemic: Observations from Nigeria. Cogent Arts and Humanities, 7(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311983.2020.1799483

Olivia, S., Gibson, J., & Nasrudin, R. (2020). Indonesia in the Time of Covid-19. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 56(2), 143–174. https://doi.org/10.1080/00074918.2020.1798581

Pitas, N., & Ehmer, C. (2020). Social Capital in the Response to COVID-19. American Journal of Health Promotion, 34(8), 942–944. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890117120924531

Prakasa, S. U. W., Hariri, A., Nuriyah, I., Asis, & Salam, I. (2021). Social aid of Covid-19 corruption: strategy and mitigation policy of Muhammadiyah East Java. Legality: Jurnal Ilmiah …, 29(1), 27–45. Retrieved from https://ejournal.umm.ac.id/index.php/legality/article/view/15127

Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Retrieved from http://assets.press.princeton.edu/about_pup/PUP100/book/7gPutnam.pdf

Rahmanti, A. R., Ningrum, D. N. A., Lazuardi, L., Yang, H. C., & Li, Y. C. (2021). Social Media Data Analytics for Outbreak Risk Communication: Public Attention on the “New Normal” During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 205, 106083. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106083

Rayamajhee, V., & Bohara, A. K. (2021). Social capital, trust, and collective action in post-earthquake Nepal. Natural Hazards, 105(2), 1491–1519. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-020-04363-4

Recuero, R., Zago, G., & Soares, F. (2019). Using Social Network Analysis and Social Capital to Identify User Roles on Polarized Political Conversations on Twitter. Social media + society, 5(2), 205630511984874. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305119848745

Sailer, M., Stadler, M., Botes, E., Fischer, F., & Greiff, S. (2021). Science knowledge and trust in medicine affect individuals’ behavior in pandemic crises. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-021-00529-1

Satgas Covid-19. (2021). Peta Sebaran Covid-19. Gugus Tugas Percepatan Penanganan Covid-19. https://covid19.go.id/peta-sebaran

Schraff, D. (2020). Political trust during the Covid-19 pandemic: Rally around the flag or lockdown effects? European Journal of Political Research, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.12425

Secco, L., & Burlando, C. (2017). Social Capital, Network Governance and Social Innovation: Towards a New Paradigm? In Social Capital and Local Development (pp. 83–105). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54277-5

Shahi, G. K., Dirkson, A., & Majchrzak, T. A. (2021). An exploratory study of COVID-19 misinformation on Twitter. Online Social Networks and Media, 22, 100104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.osnem.2020.100104

Shin, B. (2021). Exploring Network Measures of Social Capital: Toward More Relational Measurement. Journal of Planning Literature, 24(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0885412221999415

Shin, J., Jian, L., Driscoll, K., & Bar, F. (2018). The diffusion of misinformation on social media: Temporal pattern, message, and source. Computers in Human Behavior, 83, 278–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.02.008

Siegrist, M., & Bearth, A. (2021). Worldviews, trust, and risk perceptions shape public acceptance of COVID-19 public health measures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(24). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2100411118

Son, J., & Feng, Q. (2019). In Social Capital We Trust? Social Indicators Research, 144(1), 167–189. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-018-2026-9

Tiwari, S., Lane, M., & Alam, K. (2019). Do social networking sites build and maintain social capital online in rural communities? Journal of Rural Studies, 66, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.01.029

Torrente, D., Caïs, J., & Bolancé, C. (2019). Economic crisis and social trust: Reviewing the effects of economic polarisation on social and institutional confidence. Social Science Information, 58(4), 631–659. https://doi.org/10.1177/0539018419891321

Townsend, L., Wallace, C., Smart, A., & Norman, T. (2016). Building Virtual Bridges: How Rural Micro-Enterprises Develop Social Capital in Online and Face-to-Face Settings. Sociologia Ruralis, 56(1), 29–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12068

Wang, H., Can, D., Kazemzadeh, A., Bar, F., & Narayanan, S. (2012). A System for Real-time Twitter Sentiment Analysis of 2012 U.S. Presidential Election Cycle. Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 115–120. https://doi.org/10.1145/1935826.1935854

Wen, N., & Wei, R. (2018). Examining Effects of Informational use of Social Media Platforms and Social Capital on Civic Engagement Regarding Genetically Modified Foods in China. International Journal of Communication, 12, 3729–3750.

Wu, C. (2021). Social capital and COVID-19: a multidimensional and multilevel approach. Chinese Sociological Review, 53(1), 27–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/21620555.2020.1814139

Xiong, F., Liu, Y., & Cheng, J. (2017). Modeling and predicting opinion formation with trust propagation in online social networks. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 44, 513–524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnsns.2016.09.015

Young, D. G., & Bleakley, A. (2020). Ideological Health Spirals: An Integrated Political and Health Communication Approach to COVID Interventions. International Journal of Communication, 14, 3508–3524.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.25008/jkiski.v7i1.607



      




Article Metrics:

Abstract Views - 175

PDF Downloads - 62



Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2022 Tawakkal Baharuddin, Sjafri Sairin, Achmad Nurmandi, Zuly Qodir, Hasse Jubba

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



Indexed by: 
Google Scholar  Mendeley

Jurnal Komunikasi Ikatan Sarjana Komunikasi Indonesia (P-ISSN : 2548-8740, E-ISSN : 2503-0795)
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editorial Secretariat:
Jurnal Komunikasi: Ikatan Sarjana Komunikasi Indonesia (ISKI)
Gedung Dewan Pers 5th Floors, Jl. Kebon Sirih 32-34 Jakarta 10110 - Indonesia

Contact Person   : Prof. Dr. Rajab Ritonga, M.Si

Email                   : rajab.r@lspr.edu

Call/Whatsapp     : +62811133471
View My Stats