The New Normal Leadership: How Technology Alter Communication Style in Contemporary Organization

Taufan Teguh Akbari, Rizky Ridho Pratomo


The Covid-19 pandemic has hit many sectors in the world. To mitigate the plague, many countries have formulated a social distancing policy. The pandemic compels us to foster the use of technology to carry out daily activities. A very few articles explain how technology alters the way leaders communicate. Therefore, the  objective of this research is to examine whether technology has an impact on leader communication patterns using Adaptive Leadership and Technological Determinism Theory. This research uses qualitative approach with literature review and interview as a means to collect and analyze data. Based on the current trend, there are some changes in leader communication patterns. Also, the author found that there is a gap in the adoption of technology between leaders and members of the organization. While leaders are prepared to change mindset and embrace  digital  practices, members are not well-prepared. They struggle to adjust to the new work environment and feel overworked and exhausted. To embrace the digital working environment, leaders need to solve the gap. We argue that the gap between the leaders and members can be addressed by enhancing or improving the way leaders and members interact. This is because to become a leader, one should engage in communication. We propose some principles about new ways of communication during the New Normal.

Full Text:



Accenture. (2021). Technology Vision 2021: Leaders Wanted Master of Change at a Moment of Truth. Dublin: Accenture.

Abu Naser, S. S., El Talla, S. A., Al Shobaki, M. J., Ahmad, H. R., & Abu-Naser, S. S. (2018). Information Technology Role in Determining Communication Style Prevalent Among Al-Azhar University Administrative Staff. International Journal of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. 7(4).

Akcil, U., Aksal, F. A., Mukhametzyanova, F. S., & Gazi, Z. A. (2017). An examination of open and technology leadership in managerial practices of education system. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(1), 119–131.

Alhadlaq, I. (2016). How Technology Influences Communication. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 7(1), 960-963.

Amir, D. A. (2019). The Effect Of Servant Leadership On Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Trust in Leader as a Mediation and Perceived Organizational Support as a Moderation. Journal of Leadership in Organizations, 1(1), 1–16.

Andriani, D. (2020, October 14). Masalah Kesehatan Jiwa Menjadi Penting Selama Masa Pandemi. Retrieved from

Arthur-Mensah, N., & Zimmerman, J. (2017). Changing Through Turbulent Times – Why Adaptive Leadership Matters. The Journal of Student Leadership; 1(2).

Barret, B. (2020, November 8). How Google Meet Weathered the Work-From-Home Explosion. Retrieved from

Bartsch, S., Weber, E., Büttgen, M., & Huber, A. (2020). Leadership matters in crisis-induced digital transformation: how to lead service employees effectively during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Service Management, 32(1), 71–85.

Braun, S., Hernandez Bark, A., Kirchner, A., Stegmann, S., & van Dick, R. (2019). Emails from the Boss—Curse or Blessing? Relations Between Communication Channels, Leader Evaluation, and Employees’ Attitudes. International Journal of Business Communication, 56(1), 50–81.

Bungin, B. (2008). Penelitian Kualitatif: Komunikasi, Ekonomi, Kebijakan Publik, dan Ilmu Sosial Lainnya. Rawamangun: Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Buzan, B., & Lawson, G. (2015). The Global Transformation: History, Modernity, and the Making of International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chen, W., & Kamal, F. (2016). The impact of information and communication technology adoption on multinational firm boundary decisions. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(5), 563–576.

Colbert, A., Yee, N., & George, G. (2016). The digital workforce and the workplace of the future. Academy of Management Journal. 59(3), 731–739.

Dafoe, A. (2015). On Technological Determinism. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 40(6), 1047–1076.

DeRue, D. S. (2011). Adaptive leadership theory: Leading and following as a complex adaptive process. Research in Organizational Behavior. 31, 125–150. Elsevier.

Dirani, K. M., Abadi, M., Alizadeh, A., Barhate, B., Garza, R. C., Gunasekara, N., Ibrahim, G., & Majzun, Z. (2020). Leadership competencies and the essential role of human resource development in times of crisis: a response to Covid-19 pandemic. Human Resource Development International, 1–15.

Drago, E. (2015). The Effect of Technology on Face-to-Face Communication. In Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications. 6(1).

Dutta, S., & Mehta, N. (2019). Role of Immersive Technology in the Business Communication Today. International Journal of Research in Business Studies. 4(2), 17-26.

Forster, B. B., Patlas, M. N., & Lexa, F. J. (2020). Crisis Leadership During and Following Covid-19. Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal. 71(4), 421–422. SAGE Publications Inc.

Friedl, J., & Verčič, A. T. (2011). Media preferences of digital natives’ internal communication: A pilot study. Public Relations Review, 37(1), 84–86.

Govindarajan, V. (2016). Adaptive Leadership 101. Leader to Leader. 81, 42–46.

Hall, A., & Austin, S. F. (2016). Exploring The Workplace Communication Preferences of Millennials. Journal of Organizational Culture. 20(1), 1-19.

Hayashi, C., & Soo, A. (2012). Adaptive Leadership in Times of Crisis. PRISM, 4(1), 78–86.

Husna, N. (2018). Dampak Media Sosial terhadap Komunikasi Interpersonal Pustakawan di Perpustakaan UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta. Libria. 9(2).

Jakubik, M., & Berazhny, I. (2017). Rethinking Leadership and Its Practices in the Digital Era . Management International Conference, 471-483.

Kaswan. (2019). Kepemimpinan Dampak dan Warisannya: Praktik Kepemimpinan untuk Meraih Keunggulan Organisasi Jangka Pendek dan Jangka Panjang. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Kaul, V., Shah, V. H., & El-Serag, H. (2020). Leadership During Crisis: Lessons and Applications from the COVID-19 Pandemic. Gastroenterology, 159(3), 809-812.

Khosravi, P., Rezvani, A., & Wiewiora, A. (2016). The impact of technology on older adults’ social isolation. Computers in Human Behavior. 63, 594–603. Elsevier Ltd.

Maarit Lipiäinen, H. S., Karjaluoto, H. E., & Nevalainen, M. (2014). Digital channels in the internal communication of a multinational corporation. Corporate Communications, 19(3), 275–286.

Madianou, M., & Miller, D. (2013). Polymedia: Towards a new theory of digital media in interpersonal communication. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 16(2), 169–187.

McLuhan, M. (1994). Understanding Media: The Extension of Men. Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

McLuhan, M., & Fiore, Q. (1967). The Medium is the Message: An Inventory of Effects. California: Gingko Press Inc.

Men, L. R. (2014). Strategic Internal Communication. Management Communication Quarterly, 28(2), 264–284.

Men, L. R., & Stacks, D. (2014). The Effects of Authentic Leadership on Strategic Internal Communication and Employee-Organization Relationships. Journal of Public Relations Research, 26(4), 301–324.

Microsoft. (2021). 2021 Work Trend Index: The Next Great Disruption Is Hybrid Work - Are We Ready? Washington: Microsoft.

Mishra, K., Boynton, L., & Mishra, A. (2014). Driving Employee Engagement: The Expanded Role of Internal Communications. International Journal of Business Communication, 51(2), 183–202.

Muqsith, M. A., Muzykant, V. L., & Kuzmenkova, K. E. (2019). Cyberprotest: new media and the new social movement in Indonesia. Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism, 24(4), 765–775.

Ngafifi, M. (2014). Kemajuan Teknologi dan Pola Hidup Manusia dalam Perspektif Sosial Budaya. Jurnal Pembangunan Pendidikan: Fondasi dan Aplikasi, 2(1).

Nickitas, D. M. (2019). First-Face Communication: Is Digital Technology Impacting Leadership Communication Effectiveness? Nursing Economics (37) (2), 65-66.

Omilion-Hodges, L. M., & Sugg, C. E. (2019). Millennials’ Views and Expectations Regarding the Communicative and Relational Behaviors of Leaders: Exploring Young Adults’ Talk About Work. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 82(1), 74–100.

Paek, H.-J., & Hove, T. (2021). Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), Crisis Communication Principles and the COVID-19 Response in South Korea. Journal of Creative Communications.

Phelps, K. C. (2014). So Much Technology, So Little Talent? Skills for Harnessing Technology for Leadership Outcomes. Journal of Leadership Studies, 8(2), 51–56.

Przybylski, A. K., & Weinstein, N. (2013). Can you connect with me now? How the presence of mobile communication technology influences face-to-face conversation quality. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30(3), 237–246.

Rambe, P., & Dzansi, D. Y. (2016). Informal distributed leadership in technology adoption. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 8(2), 155–165.

Ruben, B. D., & Gigliotti, R. A. (2016). Leadership as Social Influence. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 23(4), 467–479.

Sahjaya, C., & Rao, K. S. (2018). New Leadership in the Digital Era: A Conceptual Study on Emotional Dimensions in Relations With Intellectual Dimensions. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology. 9(1), 738-747.

Schwab, K. (2017). The Fourth Industrial Revolution. New York: Crown Business.

Schwarzmüller, T., Brosi, P., Duman, D., & Welpe, I. M. (2018). How does the digital transformation affect organizations? Key themes of change in work design and leadership. Management Revue, 29(2), 114–138.

Sikka, T. (2011). Technology, communication, and Society: From Heidegger and Habermas to Feenberg. Review of Communication, 11(2), 93–106.

Šimanskienė, L., & Župerkienė, E. (2014). Sustainable leadership: the new challenge for organizations. Forum Scientiae Oeconomia, 2(1), 81–93.

Snyder, H. (2019). Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines. Journal of Business Research, 104, 333–339.

Stoller, J. K. (2020). Reflections on leadership in the time of COVID-19. BMJ Leader. 4(2), 77–79.

Tideman, S. G., Arts, M. C., & Zandee, D. P. (2013). Sustainable Leadership: Towards a Workable Definition. The Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 49, 17–33.

Tkalac Verčič, A., & Špoljarić, A. (2020). Managing internal communication: How the choice of channels affects internal communication satisfaction. Public Relations Review, 46(3), 101926.

Tracy, B. (2010). How the Best Leaders Lead: Proven Secrets to Getting the Most Out of Yourself and Others. New York.

Wheeler, T. (2019). From Gutenberg to Google: The History of Our Future. Washington: Brooking Institution Press.

Xiao, Y., & Watson, M. (2019). Guidance on Conducting a Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 39(1), 93–112.

Yue, C. A., Men, L. R., & Ferguson, M. A. (2019). Bridging transformational leadership, transparent communication, and employee openness to change: The mediating role of trust. Public Relations Review, 45(3).



Article Metrics:

Abstract Views - 324

PDF Downloads - 184


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Taufan Teguh Akbari, Rizky Ridho Pratomo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed by: 
Google Scholar  Mendeley

Jurnal Komunikasi Ikatan Sarjana Komunikasi Indonesia (P-ISSN : 2548-8740, E-ISSN : 2503-0795)
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editorial Secretariat:
Jurnal Komunikasi: Ikatan Sarjana Komunikasi Indonesia (ISKI)
Gedung Dewan Pers 5th Floors, Jl. Kebon Sirih 32-34 Jakarta 10110 - Indonesia

Contact Person: Prof. Dr. Rajab Ritonga, M.Si

Email                  :

Call/Whatsapp : +62811133471
View My Stats